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 Learning to read takes several years of formal school with approximately 180 hours, equivalent to one school year or more in each grade level for students without language difficulties and learning to spell is typically taught until high school, therefore if a grade two or three student has not learned to read and spell in a classroom setting, this signifies that he needs further help in learning to read and spell

but...

 

What is the best and the most effective reading program for individual with dyslexia?

 

The reading program for individual with a specific language difficulty called dyslexia should be individualized based on the student's specific learning needs and the instruction should be  in an explicit, structured, systematic and cumulative method.

  • The student's literacy instruction should be based on his particular needs; for example if the student does not know the sounds of the language then the reading teacher must teach the sounds first

  • The sounds of the language are the basic building blocks of words, the foundation or the backbone for learning to read and spell, also it is very important to teach the speech sounds correctly as it will greatly affect the learning process, for example, although the words "hat," "hot," "hut," are just differ by vowel sounds,  the words  mean differently from each other

  • In addition to learning the sounds, the instructor should teach the student how to connect and pull out the sounds so that he can read and spell unknown minimal words, such as "tab," "mud," "bin," " log," even if he has not seen these words.

  • Added to the sounds, the student must also learn the rules of the language, the syllable types and strategies, as well as the word part and how to pull out and put them back together, so that longer words are manageable to read and spell

  • The reading teacher should explain the instruction in a clear and detailed manner to avoid confusion and should provide examples of the concepts using the seeing, touching and hearing with "I do," "We do," and "You do, " method to reinforce learning.

  • The student needs to learn the concepts in a step by step manner and the concepts should be broken down from the simplest to the most difficult level

  • Each concept should be mastered and or the student must reach the fluency of that lesson before moving on to the next level so that the next step would not be too difficult for the student to learn

  • If the student has specific difficulties in learning certain concept, such as difficulties in blending some sounds and/or confusions with b/d/p/, the teacher must address that issue before introducing the next lesson

  • Individual with dyslexia tends to forget easily, therefore the student needs a consistent and accurate practice of the lessons he has learned. The reading teacher MUST from time to time, review  the previous taught concept such as the rules of the c, k, ck, as well as for example, the short sounds /a/, /u/ and /o/ MUST be drilled precisely and their corresponding words must be practiced accurately so that the next level of learning would not be compromised.

  • Since most individuals with dyslexia may have poor organization skills, he needs a predictable and consistent environment that is also free of destruction, for example, he should know what he should do first and expect what to do next in his lessons.

 

Although learning to read and spell will take time for individual with dyslexia, parents must be able to see progress of their child's reading and spelling skills within the 15 sessions of instruction. The student should be able to learn some sounds and be able to read and spell few minimal words such as "lad," "rap," "tag," even if he has not seen these words

 

But, it is necessary to be realistic in setting learning to read and spell goals for the student, and parents should not expect their child to reach his appropriate grade level even after a year of intensive reading intervention because there is NO such thing as a quick fix literacy intervention and as it also involves many factors such as the student's capacity to learn, the severity of his language problem, his reading gap level, how often he sees the tutor, etc.

However, if the student is not making progress within the 15 sessions of intervention, it is important that the teacher MUST re-evaluate the program or  parents should change tutor!

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Multisensory Reading Clinic Dyslexia Therapeutic Tutoring

Orton-Gillingham Instruction