google-site-verification: google89f1357324d64ed4.html
top of page

GLOSSARY of Learning to Read TERMS


A compilation of very common terms used by educators to describe certain aspects of reading and spelling as well as reading and spelling instructions

accent: an emphasis or stress on syllables in a word

acquired dyslexia:





base word:



capital letters

closed syllable:



consonant blend:

consonant digraph:

consonant -le syllable:





vowel digraphs:






grapheme: a letter or letter combination that represents a phoneme to spell words. A grapheme in English can be more letter combinations to form words for spelling such as: me,   pie,   fight,   freight


key word:

literacy: a comprehensive term that refers to an ability to read, write, and conduct any other activity related to written language effectively

long vowel:








open syllable:

phoneme: a phoneme is a speech sound.  It is the foundation for learning to read for any language with an alphabetic writing system that represents language at the phoneme level such as English and French. The English language has appx 45 speech sounds or phonemes. We combine them to make words; for example the sounds sh  o  ck when combined they make the word shock. Learning the sound is the first step in learning to read followed by connecting the sounds, such as the sounds sh o ck and we combined them to make the word shock.

phoneme awareness, also called phonemic awareness refers to one aspect of phonological awareness or phonological skills. It is a conscious awareness that words are made of speech sounds and manipulate them to make words. The ability to distinguish and manipulate the sounds at the phoneme level such as bat to mat, and tam to tab is extremely important because through these skills we can distinguish the students who would have problems in reading and spelling.   




phonological awareness: a conscious awareness of all levels of the speech sounds such as syllables, word boundaries, stress patterns, phonemes, etc. It is the ability  to identify, manipulate  and remember the sounds – connect, remove, add, separate the sounds such as connecting the sounds of s, m, a, sh = smash; removing the sound of n from the word jungle= juggle; adding the sound s at the beginning of the word witch = switch; separating the sounds from the word shower = sh, ow, er. These skills must be taught to children from kindergarten to grade one from a very simple syllable kit, dug, van to a more advanced level such as stick, chant, stretch, so that they can read and spell known and unknown words. We can also identify the at-risk children through their phonological skills - the easiest, the fastest, the cheapest  and the most effective method!

phonology: the study of the sound systems in a particular language with alphabetic principle that governs the language such as English and French. It includes the inventory of sounds and the rules that describe how to sequence and utter the sounds (phonemes) to make words. For instance, it is the study of how to change the phoneme /c/ to /b/ for the word cat to bat. 



r-controlled syllable:

root word:



short syllable:


simple syllable: is a word or words that have  one consonant such as cat, dog, bed, fox etc...


syllable: is a unit of pronounciation that has a vowel, vowels  or a group of vowels with or without consonants before or after the vowel.  For example, the word 'kit' is a syllable that has a vowel i  with consonants before and after the vowel; 'kite' is a syllable that has a vowel i with consonants before and after the vowel and vowel e  with a consonant before the vowel; 'keen' is also a syllable with a group of vowels ee and has consonants before and after the vowels.

syllable division:

syllable types:


vowel: a speech sound from the letters of the alphabet and there are more than six syllables in the English language; it is the most important part of every syllable  because there is no syllable without a vowel but their is a syllable without a consonant. 

to be continued... sorry for the inconvenience


Be your child's ADVOCATE!

 Your decision today is your CHILD'S tomorrow!

Multisensory Reading Clinic, Reading Specialist- Montreal, Laval, Quebec, Orton-Gillingham Tutor, Dyslexia Specialist, Learning Disability Specialist, ADHD Reading Tutor, Autism Reading Tutor, Special Needs Tutor, Learn to Read Tutor, Intellectual Disability Reading Tutor

Multisensory Reading Clinic  Dyslexia Therapeutic Tutoring     Orton-Gillingham Instruction

  • Google+ Social Icon
  • Facebook Social Icon
  • Pinterest Social Icon
  • Yelp Social Icon
  • Twitter Social Icon
bottom of page