GLOSSARY of Learning to Read TERMS
A compilation of very common terms used by educators to describe certain aspects of reading and spelling as well as reading and spelling instructions
accent: an emphasis or stress on syllables in a word
consonant -le syllable:
grapheme: a letter or letter combination that represents a phoneme to spell words. A grapheme in English can be more letter combinations to form words for spelling such as: me, pie, fight, freight
literacy: a comprehensive term that refers to an ability to read, write, and conduct any other activity related to written language effectively
phoneme: a phoneme is a speech sound. It is the foundation for learning to read for any language with an alphabetic writing system that represents language at the phoneme level such as English and French. The English language has appx 45 speech sounds or phonemes. We combine them to make words; for example the sounds sh o ck when combined they make the word shock. Learning the sound is the first step in learning to read followed by connecting the sounds, such as the sounds sh o ck and we combined them to make the word shock.
phoneme awareness, also called phonemic awareness refers to one aspect of phonological awareness or phonological skills. It is a conscious awareness that words are made of speech sounds and manipulate them to make words. The ability to distinguish and manipulate the sounds at the phoneme level such as bat to mat, and tam to tab is extremely important because through these skills we can distinguish the students who would have problems in reading and spelling.
phonological awareness: a conscious awareness of all levels of the speech sounds such as syllables, word boundaries, stress patterns, phonemes, etc. It is the ability to identify, manipulate and remember the sounds – connect, remove, add, separate the sounds such as connecting the sounds of s, m, a, sh = smash; removing the sound of n from the word jungle= juggle; adding the sound s at the beginning of the word witch = switch; separating the sounds from the word shower = sh, ow, er. These skills must be taught to children from kindergarten to grade one from a very simple syllable kit, dug, van to a more advanced level such as stick, chant, stretch, so that they can read and spell known and unknown words. We can also identify the at-risk children through their phonological skills - the easiest, the fastest, the cheapest and the most effective method!
phonology: the study of the sound systems in a particular language with alphabetic principle that governs the language such as English and French. It includes the inventory of sounds and the rules that describe how to sequence and utter the sounds (phonemes) to make words. For instance, it is the study of how to change the phoneme /c/ to /b/ for the word cat to bat.
simple syllable: is a word or words that have one consonant such as cat, dog, bed, fox etc...
syllable: is a unit of pronounciation that has a vowel, vowels or a group of vowels with or without consonants before or after the vowel. For example, the word 'kit' is a syllable that has a vowel i with consonants before and after the vowel; 'kite' is a syllable that has a vowel i with consonants before and after the vowel and vowel e with a consonant before the vowel; 'keen' is also a syllable with a group of vowels ee and has consonants before and after the vowels.
vowel: a speech sound from the letters of the alphabet and there are more than six syllables in the English language; it is the most important part of every syllable because there is no syllable without a vowel but their is a syllable without a consonant.
to be continued... sorry for the inconvenience
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